Send to

Choose Destination
Science. 2011 Sep 23;333(6050):1723-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1209206. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Coherent two-dimensional nanoscopy.

Author information

Fachbereich Physik and Research Center OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Str. 46, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.


We introduce a spectroscopic method that determines nonlinear quantum mechanical response functions beyond the optical diffraction limit and allows direct imaging of nanoscale coherence. In established coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy, four-wave-mixing responses are measured using three ingoing waves and one outgoing wave; thus, the method is diffraction-limited in spatial resolution. In coherent 2D nanoscopy, we use four ingoing waves and detect the final state via photoemission electron microscopy, which has 50-nanometer spatial resolution. We recorded local nanospectra from a corrugated silver surface and observed subwavelength 2D line shape variations. Plasmonic phase coherence of localized excitations persisted for about 100 femtoseconds and exhibited coherent beats. The observations are best explained by a model in which coupled oscillators lead to Fano-like resonances in the hybridized dark- and bright-mode response.

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center