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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Aug 16;58(8):868-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.12.050.

Factors associated with subsequent arch reintervention after initial balloon aortoplasty in patients with Norwood procedure and arch obstruction.

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Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



The aim of this study was to determine whether there are identifiable factors associated with increased risk for aortic arch reintervention in patients who have undergone balloon aortoplasty (BD) for aortic arch obstruction (COA) after the Norwood procedure (NP).


BD has been shown to be an effective acute therapy for COA after the NP. However, recurrent obstruction requiring repeat intervention is not uncommon.


All patients who underwent BD as the initial intervention for COA after the NP from to January 1993 to May 2009 were retrospectively analyzed (n = 116).


The median age at initial BD was 4.5 months. The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. Procedures were considered acutely successful in 92% of patients, with a median gradient reduction overall from 24 to 3 mm Hg (p < 0.0001) and a COA diameter increase of 52% (p < 0.0001). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, freedom from reintervention was 69% at 1 year and 58% at 5 years, and freedom from reoperation was 82% at 1 year and 79% at 5 years. By Cox regression analysis, proximal arch obstruction, age <3 months at BD, moderate or greater ventricular dysfunction, moderate or greater atrioventricular valve regurgitation on pre-catheterization echocardiography, and higher post-BD coarctation gradient were associated with shorter freedom from reoperation.


Despite a high acute success rate, a significant proportion of patients treated with BD for post-NP COA underwent reintervention during follow-up. The risk for arch reintervention is highest in patients with proximal arch obstruction, those age <3 months at the time of BD, and those with less successful acute results.

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