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Nanotechnology. 2008 Oct 8;19(40):405701. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/19/40/405701. Epub 2008 Aug 21.

The effects of anodization parameters on titania nanotube arrays and dye sensitized solar cells.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574, Singapore.


Ordered, closely packed, and vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays with lengths exceeding 10 µm were fabricated by anodization of titanium foils. The effects of anodization voltage and time on the microstructural morphology and the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on the titania nanotube arrays were investigated. On increasing the anodization voltage or time, the increase in active surface area leads to enhanced photovoltaic currents and thereby an overall higher performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency enhancement with rising anodization voltage exceeds the increase in the outer surface area of the nanotubes, indicating that the active surface area is further enlarged by a more accessible inner surface of the nanotube arrays grown with a higher anodization voltage. A promising efficiency of 3.67% for dye sensitized solar cells based on anodized titania nanotube arrays was achieved under AM1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination.

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