Send to

Choose Destination
J Phys Condens Matter. 2009 Dec 2;21(48):483001. doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/21/48/483001. Epub 2009 Nov 6.

Atomic force microscope nanolithography: dip-pen, nanoshaving, nanografting, tapping mode, electrochemical and thermal nanolithography.

Author information

Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico-Humacao, 100 Road 908 CUH Station, Humacao, PR 00791, USA. The Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, Facundo Bueso Building, Rio Piedras, PR 00931, USA.


Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely employed as a nanoscopic lithography technique. In this review, we summarize the current state of research in this field. We introduce the various forms of the technique, such as nanoshaving, nanografting and dip-pen nanolithography, which we classify according to the different interactions between the AFM probe and the substrate during the nanolithography fabrication process. Mechanical force, applied by the tip to the substrate, is the variable that can be controlled with good precision in AFM and it has been utilized in patterning self-assembled monolayers. In such applications, the AFM tip can break some relatively weak chemical bonds inside the monolayer. In general, the state of the art for AFM nanolithography demonstrates the power, resolution and versatility of the technique.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for IOP Publishing Ltd.
Loading ...
Support Center