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J Exp Child Psychol. 2011 Dec;110(4):647-58. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.07.004. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

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College of Education, University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.


The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development.

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