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Int J Androl. 2011 Oct;34(5 Pt 2):e499-510. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01211.x. Epub 2011 Aug 10.

Prospective study on the prevalence and associated risk factors of cryptorchidism in 6246 newborn boys from Nice area, France.

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Pediatrics Department, CHU Nice, Nice, France Conseil Général Des Alpes Maritimes, Nice, France.


To assess the incidence and risk factors of cryptorchidism in Nice area. A 3-year prospective study was conducted at two maternity wards involving neonatal screening of boys born ≥34weeks of amenorrhoea. Methodology was strict with examination at birth, 3 and 12months by the same paediatrician. Two strictly matched controls were included for each case. Information on child and parents (medical history, pregnancy, lifestyle) was recorded using medical chart and self-administered questionnaires. A total of 102 of 6246 boys were born with cryptorchidism (prevalence 1.6%, 95 included). Half of them were still cryptorchid at three and 12months with, however, 10% of secondary re-ascent (recurrent cryptorchidism) at 12months, justifying long-term follow-up. Cryptorchidism at birth was associated with instrumental delivery, inguinal hernia and urogenital malformations, particularly micropenis and paternal history of cryptorchidism. Our results suggest that maternal exposure to anti-rust or phthalates could be a risk factor, whereas eating fruits daily seemed somewhat protective. Prevalence of cryptorchidism in our area is on the lower bracket compared with other countries, and is associated with both familial and environmental risk factors.

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