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Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011 Sep;32(9):861-71. doi: 10.1086/661597.

Outcomes and genetic relatedness of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae at Detroit medical center.

Author information

1
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. drormc@hotmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are rapidly emerging in hospitals in the United States and are posing a significant threat. To better understand the transmission dynamics and the acquisition of resistant strains, a thorough analysis of epidemiologic and molecular characteristics was performed.

METHODS:

CRE isolated at Detroit Medical Center were analyzed from September 2008 to September 2009. bla(KPC) genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) was used to determine genetic similarity among strains. Epidemiologic and outcomes analyses were performed.

RESULTS:

Ninety-two unique patient CRE isolates were recovered. Sixty-eight strains (74%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 7 were Klebsiella oxytoca, 15 were Enterobacter species, and 2 were Escherichia coli. Fifteen isolates (16%) were resistant to colistin, 14 (16%) were resistant to tigecycline, and 2 were resistant to all antimicrobials tested. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 63 ± 2 years. Sixty patients (68%) were admitted to the hospital from long-term care facilities. Only 70% of patients received effective antimicrobial therapy when infection was suspected, with a mean time to appropriate therapy of 120 ± 23 hours following sample culturing. The mean length of hospitalization after sample culturing was 18.6 ± 2.5 days. Of 57 inpatients, 18 (32%) died in the hospital. Independent predictors for mortality were intensive care unit stay (odds ratio [OR], 15.8; P = .003) and co-colonization with CRE and either Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR, 17.2; P = .006). Among K. pneumoniae CRE, rep-PCR revealed 2 genetically related strains that comprised 70% and 20% of isolates, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this large U.S. cohort of patients with CRE infection, which reflects the modern continuum of medical care, co-colonization with CRE and A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa was associated with increased mortality. Two predominant clones of K. pneumoniae accounted for the majority of cases of CRE infection.

PMID:
21828966
PMCID:
PMC4067763
DOI:
10.1086/661597
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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