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Child Care Health Dev. 2012 Jul;38(4):561-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01295.x. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Personal and environmental pathways to participation in young children with and without mild motor disabilities.

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Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.



Participation in everyday activities has a positive influence upon health and well-being and is considered as an outcome measure. According to recent models child participation is the product of the dynamic interaction between health states and both individual and environmental factors. Children with mild developmental disabilities often present decreased participation in everyday activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which individual and environmental factors explain the participation of young children, with and without mild motor disabilities.


The study population included 58 kindergarten children together with their parents (29 children with mild motor disabilities who were referred to occupational therapy and 29 children without motor disabilities). Both groups of children were matched for: age; gender; age of parents; and socio-economic status (SES). We assessed participation using the Child Participation Questionnaire (intensity, diversity, independence, child enjoyment and parental satisfaction) and we assessed children's self-efficacy and motor abilities for individual factors. Parental self-efficacy and SES were collected by questionnaires.


Participation diversity (number of activities) was predicted by child and mother self-efficacy and by SES. Child independence and enjoyment as well as parental satisfaction were predicted by child motor ability but mainly by maternal self-efficacy. Results suggest that the total explained variance is more than double when the environmental variables (parental self-efficacy and SES) are inserted to the participation model.


Maternal self-efficacy and SES serve as facilitators to increased participation and well-being of children with mild motor disabilities.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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