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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Oct;55(10):4659-63. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00562-11. Epub 2011 Aug 8.

Nonconcordance with surgical site infection prevention guidelines and rates of surgical site infections for general surgical, neurological, and orthopedic procedures.

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Infectious Diseases, Communicable Disease Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433, Republic of Singapore.


Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common and preventable complication of surgery, but the relative importance of individual measures recommended by guidelines has not been determined. Elective general surgical, neurological, and orthopedic procedures requiring antibiotic prophylaxis from a 3-month period were retrospectively studied to determine concordance with SSI prevention guidelines and to identify factors which predicted the development of SSIs. A total of 216 surgeries were reviewed, with 18 SSIs (8.3%). A mean of 1.4 antibiotic prophylaxis errors per surgery were identified, with correct antibiotic type identified for 64%, antibiotic timing for 83%, supplemental antibiotic dosing for 34%, and antibiotic duration of less than 24 h for 44%. Normothermia was present in 79% of surgeries, and normoglycemia was present in 17%. Univariate analysis of the SSI rate identified four significant factors. Antibiotic prophylaxis for less than 24 h postoperatively (odds ratio [OR], 0.213; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]0.060 to 0.757) and neurosurgery (OR, 0.118; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.903) correlated with a reduced risk of SSI. The mean number of prophylaxis errors (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.4) and a duration of surgical drainage for more than 3 days (OR, 2.679; 95% CI, 1.009 to 7.113) predicted SSI. By multivariate analysis, errors in individual antibiotic prophylaxis measures were not significantly associated with SSI; however, the presence of more than two errors was significant (OR, 4.030; 95% CI, 1.018 to 15.96). A strong correlation was identified between the degree of concordance to SSI prevention guidelines and the SSI rate (P = 0.001, Mantel-Haenszel linear-by-linear association chi-square test).

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