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J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012 Mar;7(1):74-94. doi: 10.1007/s11481-011-9302-7. Epub 2011 Aug 6.

Mechanisms of dendritic cell trafficking across the blood-brain barrier.

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1
Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA.

Abstract

Although the central nervous system (CNS) is considered to be an immunoprivileged site, it is susceptible to a host of autoimmune as well as neuroinflammatory disorders owing to recruitment of immune cells across the blood-brain barrier into perivascular and parenchymal spaces. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are involved in both primary and secondary immune responses, are the most potent immune cells in terms of antigen uptake and processing as well as presentation to T cells. In light of the emerging importance of DC traficking into the CNS, these cells represent good candidates for targeted immunotherapy against various neuroinflammatory diseases. This review focuses on potential physiological events and receptor interactions between DCs and the microvascular endothelial cells of the brain as they transmigrate into the CNS during degeneration and injury. A clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in DC migration may advance the development of new therapies that manipulate these mechanistic properties via pharmacologic intervention. Furthermore, therapeutic validation should be in concurrence with the molecular imaging techniques that can detect migration of these cells in vivo. Since the use of noninvasive methods to image migration of DCs into CNS has barely been explored, we highlighted potential molecular imaging techniques to achieve this goal. Overall, information provided will bring this important leukocyte population to the forefront as key players in the immune cascade in the light of the emerging contribution of DCs to CNS health and disease.

PMID:
21822588
PMCID:
PMC3276728
DOI:
10.1007/s11481-011-9302-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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