Send to

Choose Destination
Eur Heart J. 2012 May;33(10):1223-31. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr255. Epub 2011 Aug 6.

Heart-rate reduction by If-channel inhibition with ivabradine restores collateral artery growth in hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis.

Author information

Klinik für Innere Medizin III (Kardiologie, Angiologie und Internistische Intensivmedizin), Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Kirrberger Straße, Homburg/Saar, Germany.



Collateral arteries protect tissue from ischaemia. Heart rate correlates with vascular events in patients with arterial obstructive disease. Here, we tested the effect of heart-rate reduction (HRR) on collateral artery growth.


The I(f)-channel inhibitor ivabradine reduced heart rate by 11% in wild-type and 15% in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-) mice and restored endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings of ApoE(-/-) mice. Microsphere perfusion and angiographies demonstrated that ivabradine did not change hindlimb perfusion in wild-type mice but improved perfusion in ApoE(-/-) mice from 40.5 ± 15.8-60.2 ± 18.5% ligated/unligated hindlimb. Heart rate reduction (13%) with metoprolol failed to improve endothelial function and perfusion. Protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS, and eNOS activity were increased in collateral tissue following ivabradine treatment of ApoE(-/-) mice. Co-treatment with nitric oxide-inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abolished the effects of ivabradine on arteriogenesis. Following ivabradine, classical inflammatory cytokine expression was lowered in ApoE(-/-) circulating mononuclear cells and in plasma, but unaltered in collateral-containing hindlimb tissue, where numbers of perivascular macrophages also remained unchanged. However, ivabradine reduced expression of anti-arteriogenic cytokines CXCL10and CXCL11 and of smooth muscle cell markers smoothelin and desmin in ApoE(-/-) hindlimb tissue. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory cytokine expression were unchanged in wild-type mice. Ivabradine did not affect cytokine production in HUVECs and THP1 mononuclear cells and had no effect on the membrane potential of HUVECs in patch-clamp experiments.


Ivabradine-induced HRR stimulates adaptive collateral artery growth. Important contributing mechanisms include improved endothelial function, eNOS activity, and modulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center