Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Dec;66(6):495-503. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.01057.x. Epub 2011 Aug 7.

Early-pregnancy cytokines in mothers to children developing multiple, persistent islet autoantibodies, type 1 diabetes, or both before 7 years of age.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit of Diabetes and Celiac Disease, Skåne University Hospital SUS, University of Lund, Malmö, Sweden. sabina.lindehammer@med.lu.se

Abstract

PROBLEM:

Increased levels of serum cytokines in early pregnancy may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

METHOD OF STUDY:

Early-pregnancy (between 10 and 16 gestational weeks) serum samples from non-diabetic index mothers (n = 48) of children who developed islet autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, or both before 7 years of age were analyzed for IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, CXCL8, and TNF. Control mothers (n = 93) were matched for age, sampling date, and HLA-DQ genotypes.

RESULTS:

IFN-γ (P = 0.02) and IL-1β (P = 0.04) were elevated in the index mothers. All cytokines except IL-4 were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). IFN-γ [OR 1.39 (1.04, 1.85), P = 0.026] and possibly IL-2 [OR 1.21 (0.99, 1.48), P = 0.057] in early pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of multiple, persistent islet autoantibodies, type 1 diabetes, or both before 7 years of age in the offspring. However, the statistical significance for IL-2 was lost in the logistic regression when adjusted for gestational length at delivery and parity.

CONCLUSION:

Increased Th1 cytokine levels during early pregnancy might contribute to an increased risk of islet autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, or both in the offspring.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center