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Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2011 Oct;21(5):602-17. doi: 10.1080/09602011.2011.557292. Epub 2011 Aug 5.

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES - tDCS; tRNS, tACS) methods.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Medical Faculty Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. wpaulus@med.uni-goettingen.de

Abstract

Weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with a homogenous DC field at intensities of around 1 mA induces long-lasting changes in the brain. tDCS can be used to manipulate brain excitability via membrane polarisation: cathodal stimulation hyperpolarises, while anodal stimulation depolarises the resting membrane potential, whereby the induced after-effects depend on polarity, duration and intensity of the stimulation. A variety of other parameters influence tDCS effects; co-application of neuropharmacologically active drugs may most impressively prolong or even reverse stimulation effects. Transcranial alternating stimulation (tACS) and random noise stimulation (tRNS) are used to interfere with ongoing neuronal oscillations and also finally produce neuroplastic effects if applied with appropriate parameters.

PMID:
21819181
DOI:
10.1080/09602011.2011.557292
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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