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Neurochem Res. 2011 Dec;36(12):2322-32. doi: 10.1007/s11064-011-0557-4. Epub 2011 Aug 5.

The effects of single and repeated exposure to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency fields on c-Fos protein expression in the paraventricular nucleus of rat hypothalamus.

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Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.


This study investigated the effects of microwave radiation on the PVN of the hypothalamus, extracted from rat brains. Expression of c-Fos was used to study the pattern of cellular activation in rats exposed once or repeatedly (ten times in 2 weeks) to 2.45 GHz radiation in a GTEM cell. The power intensities used were 3 and 12 W and the Finite Difference Time Domain calculation was used to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR). High SAR triggered an increase of the c-Fos marker 90 min or 24 h after radiation, and low SAR resulted in c-Fos counts higher than in control rats after 24 h. Repeated irradiation at 3 W increased cellular activation of PVN by more than 100% compared to animals subjected to acute irradiation and to repeated non-radiated repeated session control animals. The results suggest that PVN is sensitive to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation at non-thermal SAR levels.

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