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Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 May;31(5):627-40. doi: 10.1007/s10096-011-1358-z. Epub 2011 Aug 5.

Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in urine. A review of the literature.

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Centre for Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Medicine, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Antwerpen, Belgium.


The detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine, a specimen easily obtained by a non-invasive self-sampling method, has been the subject of a considerable number of studies. This review provides an overview of 41 published studies; assesses how different methods and settings may contribute to the sometimes contradictory outcomes; and discusses the potential relevance of using urine samples in vaccine trials, disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and specific settings of cervical cancer screening. Urine sampling, storage conditions, sample preparation, DNA extraction, and DNA amplification may all have an important impact on HPV DNA detection and the form of viral DNA that is detected. Possible trends in HPV DNA prevalence in urine could be inferred from the presence of risk factors or the diagnosis of cervical lesions. HPV DNA detection in urine is feasible and may become a useful tool but necessitates further improvement and standardization.

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