Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011 Dec;14(6):707-14. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2011.07.005. Epub 2011 Aug 2.

Upstream and downstream signals of nitric oxide in pathogen defence.

Author information

Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Munich/Neuherberg, Germany.


Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognised as a crucial player in plant defence against pathogens. Considerable progress has been made in defining upstream and downstream signals of NO. Recently, MAP kinases, cyclic nucleotide phosphates, calcium and phosphatidic acid were demonstrated to be involved in pathogen-induced NO-production. However, the search for inducers of NO synthesis is difficult because of the still ambiguous enzymatic source of NO. Accumulation of NO triggers signal transduction by other second messengers. Here we depict NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as central redox switches translating NO redox signalling into cellular responses. Although the exact position of NO in defence signal networks is unresolved at last some NO-related signal cascades are emerging.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center