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J Endourol. 2011 Sep;25(9):1531-5. doi: 10.1089/end.2010.0648. Epub 2011 Aug 4.

Histotripsy homogenization of the prostate: thresholds for cavitation damage of periprostatic structures.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Histotripsy is a noninvasive, pulsed ultrasound technology that produces mechanically homogenized tissue within targeted volumes. Previous work has demonstrated prostatic tissue debulking in a canine model. The aim was to establish safety thresholds by evaluating histologic changes of urinary sphincter, neurovascular bundle (NVB), and rectum after targeted histotripsy treatment of these critical structures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Rectum, urinary sphincter, and NVB in five anesthetized canines were targeted for histotripsy treatment (50 total points). Locations received 1k, 10k, or 100k acoustic pulses (4 microsecond, 1 MHz) at a repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Canine subjects were euthanized immediately (2), survived 3 days (1), or 2 weeks (3) after treatment. Prostates, periprostatic tissue, and rectum were harvested and processed for histology.

RESULTS:

The sphincter was structurally intact with minimal muscle fiber disruption even after 100k pulses (n=10). Undamaged nerves, arteries, and veins of the NVB were seen despite mechanical homogenization of surrounding loose connective tissue (n=19). The rectum, however, exhibited dose-dependent damage (n=20). 1k pulses yielded mild submucosal hemorrhage. 10k pulses resulted in moderate collagen disruption and focal mucosal homogenization. 100k pulses produced damage to the mucosa and muscularis propria with extensive hemorrhage and collagen disruption. One canine treated with 100k pulses needed early euthanasia (day 3) because of complications from a urine leak.

CONCLUSIONS:

Histotripsy histologic tissue effect varied based on targeted structure with substantial structural preservation of NVB and sphincter. Rectal subclinical damage was apparent after 1k pulses and increased in extent and severity with escalating doses. Future work will include assessment of functional outcomes and refinement of these initial safety thresholds.

PMID:
21815807
PMCID:
PMC3168978
DOI:
10.1089/end.2010.0648
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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