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J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2012 Feb;27(1):138-47. doi: 10.3109/14756366.2011.597749. Epub 2011 Aug 4.

A new approach to antiglaucoma drugs: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with or without NO donating moieties. Mechanism of action and preliminary pharmacology.

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Università degli Studi di Firenze, Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, Florence, Italy.


The clinically used sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC inhibitor dorzolamide (DRZ), a new sulfonamide CA inhibitor also incorporating NO-donating moieties, NCX250, and isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) (an NO-donating compound with no CA inhibitory properties) were investigated for their intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects in rabbits with carbomer-induced glaucoma. NCX250 was more effective than DRZ or ISMN on lowering IOP, increasing ocular hemodynamics, decreasing the inflammatory processes and ocular apoptosis in this animal model of glaucoma. NO participate to the regulation of IOP in glaucoma, having also antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The ophthalmic artery, both systolic and diastolic velocities, were significantly reduced in NCX250-treated eyes in comparison to DRZ treated ones, suggesting thus a beneficial effect of NCX250 on the blood supply to the optic nerve. Combining CA inhibition with NO-donating moieties in the same compound offers an excellent approach for the management of glaucoma.

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