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J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011 Aug;199(8):520-6. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318225ee78.

Evidence-based psychotherapy for schizophrenia: 2011 update.

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Department of Psychology, Sheppard Pratt Health System, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


Many patients with schizophrenia have psychological distress and receive some form of psychotherapy. Several different psychotherapeutic approaches for schizophrenia have been developed and studied. Of these approaches, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has the strongest evidence base and has shown benefit for symptom reduction in outpatients with residual symptoms. In addition to CBT, other approaches include compliance therapy, personal therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and supportive therapy. Although usually studied as distinct approaches, these therapies overlap with each other in their therapeutic elements. Psychotherapy for schizophrenia continues to evolve with the recent advent of such approaches as metacognitive therapy, narrative therapies, and mindfulness therapy. Future research may also consider three different goals of psychotherapy in this patient population: to provide emotional support, to enhance functional recovery, and to alter the underlying illness process.

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