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J Nutr Metab. 2011;2011:623076. doi: 10.1155/2011/623076. Epub 2011 May 5.

Glycemic index and glycemic load and their association with C-reactive protein and incident type 2 diabetes.

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1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate whether the Glycemic Index (GI) or Glycemic Load (GL) of a diet is associated with C-reactive Protein (CRP) and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Our analysis included 4,366 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During follow-up 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Dietary GI and GL were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire and its association with CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. The association of GI and GL with diabetes incidence was examined using Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS:

GL, but not GI, was associated with lnCRP at baseline (b(GL) = 0.11 per 50 units; P = .01). When comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of GI with respect to diabetes incidence, a Relative Risk (RR) of 0.95 [95%CI 0.75, 1.21] was found after adjustment for lifestyle and nutritional factors. For GL the RR for diabetes incidence was 1.00 [95%CI 0.74, 1.36]. Additional adjustment for CRP did not change RRs.

CONCLUSION:

Since GI was not associated with CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unlikely that a high GI diet induces the previously shown positive association between CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing CRP concentrations.

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