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Saudi J Anaesth. 2011 Apr;5(2):157-61. doi: 10.4103/1658-354X.82783.

Comparison of pre- vs. post-incisional caudal bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in unilateral pediatric herniorrhaphy: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

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Anesthesiology and Critical Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.



This study was designed to evaluate the pre- vs. post-incisional analgesic efficacy of bupivacaine administered caudally in children undergoing unilateral hernia repair.


Fifty children aged 6 months to 6 years were included in the study. Children were divided blindly between the two groups to receive pre- vs. post-incisional caudal bupivacaine. The preincisional group received 1 ml/kg of 0.125% bupivacaine caudally after induction of anesthesia and the postincisional group received the same dose caudally at the end of surgery. Heart rate, SaO(2), end tidal CO(2), and noninvasive arterial blood pressure were recorded every 10 min. The duration of surgery, extubation time, and duration of recovery period were also recorded. The pain scores were measured with using an Oucher chart in the recovery room, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Time to first analgesia, numbers of supplementary analgesics required by each child in a 24-h period and total analgesic consumptions were recorded. Any local and systemic complications were recorded. Quantitative data were compared using a two-tailed t-test. Sex distribution and frequency of acetaminophen consumption were measured using χ(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


The Oucher pain scale at 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery, the total analgesic consumption and the numbers of demand for supplemental acetaminophen were lower statistically in preincisional group (P < 0.05). Extubation time and duration were higher in preincisional group (P < 0.05). Mean changes of heart rates were statistically lower during the anesthesia period and recovery time in preincisional group (P < 0.05).


Preincisional caudal analgesia with a single injection of 0.125% bupivacaine is more effective than the postincisional one for postoperative pain relief and analgesic consumption in unilateral pediatric herniorrhaphy.


Bupivacaine; caudal analgesia; herniorrhaphy; postoperative pain

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