Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Stem Cell. 2011 Aug 5;9(2):113-8. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2011.07.002. Epub 2011 Jul 28.

Direct reprogramming of adult human fibroblasts to functional neurons under defined conditions.

Author information

Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.


Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been generated by reprogramming a number of different somatic cell types using a variety of approaches. In addition, direct reprogramming of mature cells from one lineage to another has emerged recently as an alternative strategy for generating cell types of interest. Here we show that a combination of a microRNA (miR-124) and two transcription factors (MYT1L and BRN2) is sufficient to directly reprogram postnatal and adult human primary dermal fibroblasts (mesoderm) to functional neurons (ectoderm) under precisely defined conditions. These human induced neurons (hiNs) exhibit typical neuronal morphology and marker gene expression, fire action potentials, and produce functional synapses between each other. Our findings have major implications for cell-replacement strategies in neurodegenerative diseases, disease modeling, and neural developmental studies.

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center