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J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):3959-72. doi: 10.1021/pr200140x. Epub 2011 Jul 29.

Differential carbonylation of proteins as a function of in vivo oxidative stress.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.


This study reports for the first time qualitative and quantitative differences in carbonylated proteins shed into blood as a function of increasing levels of OS. Carbonylated proteins in freshly drawn blood from pairs of diabetic and lean rats were derivatized with biotin hydrazide, dialyzed, and enriched with avidin affinity chromatography. Proteins thus selected were used in several ways. Differences between control and diabetic subjects in relative concentration of proteins was achieved by differential labeling of tryptic digests with iTRAQ reagents followed by reversed phase chromatography (RPC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Identification and characterization of OS induced post-translational modification sites in contrast was achieved by fractionation of affinity selected proteins before proteolysis and RPC-MS/MS. Relative quantification of peptides bearing oxidative modifications was achieved for the first time by selective reaction monitoring (SRM). Approximately 1.7% of the proteins in Zucker diabetic rat plasma were selected by the avidin affinity column as compared to 0.98% in lean animal plasma. Among the 35 proteins identified and quantified, Apo AII, clusterin, hemopexin precursor, and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 7 showed the most dramatic changes in concentration. Seventeen carbonylation sites were identified and quantified, 11 of which changed more than 2-fold in oxidation state. Three types of carbonylation were identified at these sites: direct oxidative cleavage from reactive oxygen species, glycation and addition of advanced glycation end products, and addition of lipid peroxidation products. Direct oxidation was the dominant form of carbonylation observed while hemoglobin and murinoglobulin 1 homologue were the most heavily oxidized proteins.

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