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Phys Med Biol. 2011 Aug 21;56(16):5287-302. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/56/16/014. Epub 2011 Jul 28.

Investigation of dose perturbations and the radiographic visibility of potential fiducials for proton radiation therapy of the prostate.

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The University of Texas at Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 6767 Bertner Avenue, S3.8344, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Image guidance using implanted fiducial markers is commonly used to ensure accurate and reproducible target positioning in radiation therapy for prostate cancer. The ideal fiducial marker is clearly visible in kV imaging, does not perturb the therapeutic dose in the target volume and does not cause any artifacts on the CT images used for treatment planning. As yet, ideal markers that fully meet all three of these criteria have not been reported. In this study, 12 fiducial markers were evaluated for their potential clinical utility in proton radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In order to identify the good candidates, each fiducial was imaged using a CT scanner as well as a kV imaging system. Additionally, the dose perturbation caused by each fiducial was quantified using radiochromic film and a clinical proton beam. Based on the results, three fiducials were identified as good candidates for use in proton radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

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