Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur J Cancer. 2012 Jul;48(10):1550-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2011.06.043. Epub 2011 Jul 26.

SMAD3 is essential for transforming growth factor-β1-induced urokinase type plasminogen activator expression and migration in transformed keratinocytes.

Author information

Laboratory for Experimental Hematology, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Dr. Subotica 4, PO Box 102, 11129 Belgrade, Serbia.


Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulates the extracellular matrix degrading proteases expression and cell migration in order to enhance cancer cells malignancy. In the present study, we analysed the role of TGF-β1-induced Smad3 activation in the urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) production, as well as in cell migration and E-cadherin downregulation in transformed PDV keratinocyte cell line. TGF-β1 signalling was interfered by the chemical inhibitor of the TGF-β1-receptor 1 (ALK5), SB505124, and the specific Smad3 inhibitor, SiS3. Our results showed that TGF-β1 stimulates uPA expression directly through ALK5 activation. The inhibition of Smad3 strongly reduced the capacity of TGF-β1 to stimulate uPA expression, in parallel decreasing the uPA inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) expression. In addition, the transient expression of dominant negative Smad3 mutant inhibited the TGF-β1-induced uPA promoter transactivation. Moreover, Smad3-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts were refractory to the induction of uPA by TGF-β1. The inhibition of both ALK5 and Smad3 dramatically blocked the TGF-β1-stimulated E-cadherin downregulation, F-actin reorganisation and migration of PDV cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the TGF-β1-induced activation of Smad3 is the critical step for the uPA upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation, which are the key events preceding the induction of cell migration by TGF-β1 in transformed cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center