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Urol Clin North Am. 2011 Aug;38(3):313-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2011.04.002. Epub 2011 Jun 8.

Lifestyle recommendations to reduce the risk of kidney stones.

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Internal Medicine and Subacute Critical Care Clinic, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Parma, Via A. Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy.


Kidney stones are increasingly common in wealthy industrialized countries. The most frequent form (80%) is idiopathic calcium stone disease. Eating habits and lifestyle have a direct effect on the lithogenic urinary risk factors and the pathogenesis of this condition. A diet characterized by a high intake of fluids, fruits, and vegetables; a low consumption of salt and protein; and a balanced intake of calcium, fats, and carbohydrates constitutes an efficacious approach to the prevention and treatment of this illness. A correct body weight, regular exercise, and a reduction in stressful life events are also useful preventive actions.

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