Send to

Choose Destination
Skelet Muscle. 2011 Apr 4;1(1):14. doi: 10.1186/2044-5040-1-14.

Sequential association of myogenic regulatory factors and E proteins at muscle-specific genes.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 1245 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.



Gene expression in skeletal muscle is controlled by a family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors known as the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The MRFs work in conjunction with E proteins to regulate gene expression during myogenesis. However, the precise mechanism by which the MRFs activate gene expression is unclear. In this work, we sought to define the binding profiles of MRFs and E proteins on muscle-specific genes throughout a time course of differentiation.


We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays for myogenin, MyoD, Myf5 and E proteins over a time course of C2C12 differentiation, resulting in several surprising findings. The pattern of recruitment is specific to each promoter tested. The recruitment of E proteins often coincides with the arrival of the MRFs, but the binding profile does not entirely overlap with the MRF binding profiles. We found that E12/E47 is bound to certain promoters during proliferation, but every gene tested is preferentially bound by HEB during differentiation. We also show that MyoD, myogenin and Myf5 have transient roles on each of these promoters during muscle differentiation. We also found that RNA polymerase II occupancy correlates with the transcription profile of these promoters. ChIP sequencing assays confirmed that MyoD, myogenin and Myf5 co-occupy promoters.


Our data reveal the sequential association of MyoD, myogenin, Myf5 and HEB on muscle-specific promoters. These data suggest that each of the MRFs, including Myf5, contribute to gene expression at each of the geness analyzed here.. The dynamic binding profiles observed suggest that MRFs and E proteins are recruited independently to promoters.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center