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Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Aug;11(8):1185-95. doi: 10.1586/ern.11.83.

Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

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National Institute of Science and Technology Translational Medicine-INCT-TM (CNPq), Laboratory of Panic and Respiration, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Alberto Rocha, 200, Vila Dagmar, Belford Roxo, Rio de Janeiro, 26130-170, Brazil.


This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Sa├║de and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

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