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J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 30;286(39):34335-45. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.259499. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase and GEP100/Brag2 protein mediate antiangiogenic signaling by semaphorin 3E-plexin-D1 through Arf6 protein.

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  • 1Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


The semaphorins are a family of secreted or membrane-bound proteins that are known to guide axons in the developing nervous system. Genetic evidence revealed that a class III semaphorin, semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), and its receptor Plexin-D1 also control the vascular patterning during development. At the molecular level, we have recently shown that Sema3E acts on Plexin-D1 expressed in endothelial cells, thus initiating a novel antiangiogenic signaling pathway that results in the retraction of filopodia in endothelial tip cells. Sema3E induces the rapid disassembly of integrin-mediated adhesive structures, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. This process requires the activation of small GTPase Arf6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6), which regulates intracellular trafficking of β1 integrin. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Sema3E-Plexin-D1 activates Arf6 remained to be identified. Here we show that GEP100 (guanine nucleotide exchange protein 100)/Brag2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6, mediates Sema3E-induced Arf6 activation in endothelial cells. We provide evidence that upon activation by Sema3E, Plexin-D1 recruits phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, and its enzymatic lipid product, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, binds to the pleckstrin homology domain of GEP100. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding to GEP100 enhances its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity toward Arf6, thus resulting in the disassembly of integrin-mediated focal adhesions and endothelial cell collapse. Our present study reveals a novel phospholipid-regulated antiangiogenic signaling pathway whereby Sema3E activates Arf6 through Plexin-D1 and consequently controls integrin-mediated endothelial cell attachment to the extracellular matrix and migration.

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