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Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;29(1):79-86. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2009.11.001. Epub 2009 Nov 5.

Response of human DNA polymerase ι promoter to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

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Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.


Human Pol ι is a highly distributed, low-fidelity DNA polymerase lacking intrinsic exonuclease proofreading activity, thus its effects are strictly regulated. We predicted and cloned the promoter region of the human POLI gene. Successively, by transfection of deletion constructs of the POLI promoter, we demonstrated that the regions -848/-408 and -30/+215 contained positive regulatory elements, and the region +215/+335 had proximal promoter activity. Overexpression of Sp1 significantly increased the transcriptional activity of the promoter, and mutation of the Sp1 site reversed Sp1-induced promoter transactivation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that POLI mRNA expression was up-regulated in human amnion FL cells treated by the carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Reporter gene assays demonstrated that MNNG also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of the predicted promoter (-848/+335) and the proximal promoter (+215/+335). However, the promoter with the Sp1 site mutation had no response to MNNG treatment, suggesting that Sp1 plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of the POLI gene stimulated by MNNG. Our data suggest that abnormal regulation of Pol ι may be involved in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by environmental chemicals.

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