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Cell Calcium. 2011 Oct;50(4):323-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2011.06.001. Epub 2011 Jul 23.

S100A1 and calmodulin regulation of ryanodine receptor in striated muscle.

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Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology (BioMET), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


The release of Ca2+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptor calcium release channels represents the critical step linking electrical excitation to muscular contraction in the heart and skeletal muscle (excitation-contraction coupling). Two small Ca2+ binding proteins, S100A1 and calmodulin, have been demonstrated to bind and regulate ryanodine receptor in vitro. This review focuses on recent work that has revealed new information about the endogenous roles of S100A1 and calmodulin in regulating skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. S100A1 and calmodulin bind to an overlapping domain on the ryanodine receptor type 1 to tune the Ca2+ release process, and thereby regulate skeletal muscle function. We also discuss past, current and future work surrounding the regulation of ryanodine receptors by calmodulin and S100A1 in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, and the implications for excitation-contraction coupling.

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