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J Urol. 2011 Sep;186(3):1035-40. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.04.097. Epub 2011 Jul 23.

Factors affecting complication rates of ureteroscopic lithotripsy in children: results of multi-institutional retrospective analysis by Pediatric Stone Disease Study Group of Turkish Pediatric Urology Society.

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Department of Urology, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.



We evaluated factors affecting complication rates of ureteroscopy for pediatric ureteral calculi.


We retrospectively evaluated 642 children who underwent ureteroscopy at 16 Turkish centers between 2000 and 2010. Semirigid ureteroscopy was used with various calibers to treat 670 ureteral units in 660 sessions. Complications were evaluated according to the Satava and Clavien classification systems. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to determine predictive factors affecting complication rates.


A total of 367 females and 265 males were studied. Mean±SD patient age was 90.2±51.4 months (range 4 to 204). Mean±SD stone size, operative time and postoperative hospital stay were 8.9±4.7 mm, 45.8±23.8 minutes and 1.8±2.8 days, respectively. At a mean±SD followup of 13.3±17.6 months 92.8% of patients were stone-free and efficacy quotient was 90.3%. Complications, which occurred in 8.4% of patients (54 of 642), were intraoperative in 25 (Satava grade I to II in 22), early postoperative in 25 (Clavien grade I to II in 23) and late postoperative in 4 (all grade III). While operative time, age, institutional experience, orifice dilation, stenting and stone burden were statistically significant on univariate analysis, multivariate analysis revealed that operative time was the only statistically significant parameter affecting the complication rate.


Semirigid ureteroscopy is effective, with a 90% stone-free rate and efficacy quotient. Most complications are low grade and self-limiting. Our results confirm that prolonged operative time is an independent predictor of complications, and should be considered when choosing and performing the treatment modality.

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