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J Pediatr. 2011 Dec;159(6):1029-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.05.024. Epub 2011 Jul 23.

Spectrum of mutations in Noonan syndrome and their correlation with phenotypes.

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Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.



To investigate mutation spectrums and their correlations to phenotypes in Noonan syndrome (NS) and NS-related disorders that share functional alterations of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.


Clinical characteristics and genotypes of 10 previously known and 2 candidate genes, SPRY1-4 and SPRED1, were investigated in 59 patients with NS, 17 with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, 5 with Costello syndrome, and 2 with LEOPARD syndrome.


PTPN11 (39.0%), SOS1 (20.3%), RAF1 (6.8%), KRAS (5.1%), and BRAF (1.7%) mutations were identified in NS; BRAF (41.2%), SHOC2 (23.5%), and MEK1 (5.9%) mutations in cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome; and HRAS and PTPN11 mutations in Costello syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome, respectively. No additional mutations were identified in 28.9% of NS and 35.3% of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Functional characterizations of 2 RAF1 novel variants, p.P261T and p.S259T, and one SOS1 variant, p.K170E, showed enhanced activity of Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Normal stature was frequent in SOS1 mutations, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in RAF1, and developmental delay in RAF1, BRAF, or SHOC2 mutations.


By identifying genotype-phenotype correlations, our study highlights the role of molecular genetic testing in the process of differential diagnosis of NS and NS-related disorders. Pathophysiologies that underlie these correlations are needed to be investigated in terms of their effects on Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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