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Water Res. 2011 Oct 15;45(16):4896-908. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.06.032. Epub 2011 Jul 2.

Evaluation of suitable chlorine bulk-decay models for water distribution systems.

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Watervale Systems Pty Ltd, PO Box 318, Potts Point, NSW 1335, Australia.


Maintaining the chlorine residual is a major disinfection goal for many water distribution systems. A suitable general chlorine bulk-decay model is required for simulation of chlorine profiles in networks to assist disinfection planning/management efficiently. The first-order model is unsuitable due to inaccuracy and inability to represent rechlorination. Three potentially suitable, simple, reactant models were compared. The single-reactant model was found to be unsuitable, as it was inaccurate when restricted to using a single set of invariant parameters. The two-reactant model was more suitable than the variable-rate-coefficient model, although both models were accurate under the same restriction. The two-reactant model was then calibrated against datasets consisting of multiple decay tests for five distinctly different waters. It accurately predicted data reserved for validation over the chlorine concentration range of 0-6 mg/L, using a single set of invariant parameters, and is therefore the simplest, generally suitable model for simulating chlorine profiles in distribution system networks.

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