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Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Jul;15(7):751-8.

Diabetes mellitus: biochemical, histological and microbiological aspects in periodontal disease.

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  • 1School of Dentistry, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart Rome, Italy.


Relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal disease has been the subject of many studies that underline that diabetic patients are two/three times more susceptible to have an increased risk of periodontal disease, especially when metabolic control is inadequate. In this review the authors analyze, in diabetic patient, biochemical, histological and microbiological aspects of periodontal disease. Recent studies reported the results obtained in not diabetic patients, both periodontopatic and not: in periodontopatic subjects, the value of glycated hemoglobin was higher. As regards type 2 DM has a positive relationship between periodontal inflammation and glycemia, with good probabilities of disease development. Some Authors showed how the hygiene and the professional/domiciliary control could support a reduction of the glycate hemoglobin and, therefore, of the periodontal disease. The glucose accumulation in the crevicular fluid, noticed in pockets with a depth >4 mm, causes an increase of spirochetes and bacteria. Some research reported that scarcely controlled patients show high levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). This alteration together with the prolonged expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) could represent a mechanism used by bacteria to cause a major damage during the inflammation process, sometimes favoured by immunological defects, due to the mobilization of lymphocytes subpopulations. By measuring the values of TNF-a, fibrinogen, high sensitive capsule reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, at the beginning of non-surgical periodontal therapy and it has been after 3 months of treatment, noticed a relevant reduction only of TNF-a and fibrinogen. Concerning vascular alteration, vascular endothelium growing factor (VEGF) could play a major role in the tissues ischemia. The VEGF should determine the tissue ischemia, the angiogenesis and the alteration of glucose haematic level, in patients affected by microvasculopathies due to diabetes and to periodontal diseases. Particularly, the angiogenesis should favor the chronic inflammation, caused by increasing concentration of cytokines and other pro-inflammatory factors.

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