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PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22288. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022288. Epub 2011 Jul 14.

Hypertension and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors among HIV seropositive patients in Western Kenya.

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Division of Cardiology and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.



There is increased risk of cardiovascular disease among HIV seropositive individuals. The prevalence of HIV is highest in sub-Saharan Africa; however, HIV-related cardiovascular risk research is largely derived from developed country settings. Herein, we describe the prevalence of hypertension and obesity in a large HIV treatment program in Kenya.


We performed a retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records of a large HIV treatment program in Western Kenya between 2006 and 2009. We calculated the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV+ adults as well as utilized multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between clinical characteristics, HIV-related characteristics, and hypertension.


Our final sample size was 12,194. The median systolic/diastolic blood pressures were similar for both sexes (male: 110/70 mmHg, female: 110/70 mmHg). The prevalence of hypertension among men and women were 11.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Eleven percent of men and 22.6% of women were overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that overweight/obesity was more strongly associated with hypertension among HIV+ men (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.88-3.09) than a higher successive age category (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.40-1.87 comparing 16-35, 36-45 and >45 years categories). Among women, higher age category and overweight/obesity were most strongly associated with hypertension (age category: OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.95-2.50, overweight/obesity: OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.50-2.16). Length of time on protease inhibitors was not found to be related to hypertension for men (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.42-6.20) or women (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.37-2.65) after adjustment for CD4 count, age and BMI.


In Western Kenya, there is a high prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity among HIV+ patients with differences observed between men and women. The care of HIV+ patients in sub-Saharan Africa should also include both identification and management of associated cardiovascular risk factors.

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