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J Thromb Haemost. 2011 Oct;9(10):1902-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04445.x.

Low-molecular-weight heparins vs. unfractionated heparin in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.

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1
Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland. eliano.navarese@alice.it

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of the current study was to perform two separate meta-analyses of available studies comparing low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) vs. unfractionated heparin (UFH) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated (i) with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or (ii) with PCI after thrombolysis.

METHODS:

All-cause mortality was the pre-specified primary endpoint and major bleeding complications were recorded as the secondary endpoints. Relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) were chosen as the effect measure.

RESULTS:

Ten studies comprising 16,286 patients were included. The median follow-up was 2 months for the primary endpoint. Among LMWHs, enoxaparin was the compound most frequently used. In the pPCI group, LMWHs were associated with a reduction in mortality [RR (95% CI) = 0.51 (0.41-0.64), P < 0.001, ARR = 3%] and major bleeding [RR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.49-0.94), P = 0.02, ARR = 2.0%] as compared with UFH. Conversely, no clear evidence of benefits with LWMHs was observed in the PCI group after thrombolysis. Meta-regression showed that patients with a higher baseline risk had greater benefits from LMWHs (r = 0.72, P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

LMWHs were associated with greater efficacy and safety than UFH in STEMI patients treated with pPCI, with a significant relationship between risk profile and clinical benefits. Based on this meta-analysis, LMWHs may be considered as a preferred anticoagulant among STEMI patients undergoing pPCI.

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