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J Environ Public Health. 2011;2011:948789. doi: 10.1155/2011/948789. Epub 2011 Jul 6.

Distance traveled and cross-state commuting to opioid treatment programs in the United States.

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  • 1National Development and Research Institutes, Inc. (NDRI), 71 W 23 Street, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10010, USA. rosenblum@ndri.org

Abstract

This study examined commuting patterns among 23,141 methadone patients enrolling in 84 opioid treatment programs (OTPs) in the United States. Patients completed an anonymous one-page survey. A linear mixed model analysis was used to predict distance traveled to the OTP. More than half (60%) the patients traveled < 10 miles and 6% travelled between 50 and 200 miles to attend an OTP; 8% travelled across a state border to attend an OTP. In the multivariate model (n = 17,792), factors significantly (P < .05) associated with distance were, residing in the Southeast or Midwest, low urbanicity, area of the patient's ZIP code, younger age, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, prescription opioid abuse, and no heroin use. A significant number of OTP patients travel considerable distances to access treatment. To reduce obstacles to OTP access, policy makers and treatment providers should be alert to patients' commuting patterns and to factors associated with them.

PMID:
21776440
PMCID:
PMC3136171
DOI:
10.1155/2011/948789
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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