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J Endourol. 2011 Aug;25(8):1263-8. doi: 10.1089/end.2011.0055. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

The clinical research office of the endourological society percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: staghorn versus nonstaghorn stones.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital , Nadiad, India.



The study compared characteristics and outcomes in patients with staghorn or nonstaghorn stones who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) within the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study.


Data over a 1-year period from consecutively treated patients from 96 centers worldwide were collated. The following variables in patients with staghorn or nonstaghorn stones were compared: National prevalence, patient characteristics, access method, puncture frequency and outcomes, including bleeding rates, operative time, and duration of hospital stay.


Data from 5335 eligible patients were collated; 1466 (27.5%) with staghorn and 3869 (72.5%) with nonstaghorn stones. Staghorn stone presentation varied between centers from 67% in Thailand to 13% in Argentina. The frequencies of previous procedures were similar between groups, but shockwave lithotripsy was less frequent in patients with staghorn stones compared with nonstaghorn (16.8% vs 22.6%) and positive preoperative urine cultures were more frequent in patients with staghorn than nonstaghorn stones (23.4% vs 13.1%). Patients with staghorn stones underwent multiple punctures more frequently than those with nonstaghorn stones (16.9% vs 5.0%). Postoperative fever, bleeding, and the need for blood transfusion were more frequent, the median operative time and duration of hospital stay were longer, while the proportion of patients remaining stone free was lower (56.9% vs 82.5%) in patients with staghorn than nonstaghorn stones.


The proportion of patients with staghorn stones varies widely between centers. Stone-free rates were lower, complications more frequent, and operative time and hospital stay were longer in patients with staghorn stones.

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