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Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Feb;63(1):90-102. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.601286. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Changes in markers of inflammation, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in smokers following consumption of milk, and milk supplemented with fruit and vegetable extracts and vitamin C.

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The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited (Plant & Food Research), Auckland, New Zealand.


Two milk-based beverages delivering twice the average daily antioxidant intake were formulated, based on synergistic combinations of fruit and vegetable extracts, and containing vitamin C (1.00 mg/ml) for shelf stability. Smokers (n = 42) consumed prototype milk A, B or non-supplemented milk (no extracts or vitamin C; 200 ml) twice daily for 6 weeks. Fasting and post-prandial (2 h after milk consumption) blood samples were collected at baseline and the end of each treatment. Non-supplemented milk significantly reduced fasting inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL) 6, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α) compared to baseline. Both supplemented milk-based beverages significantly increased fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations and antioxidant potential and decreased serum uric acid, compared to non-supplemented milk. The beverages did not induce post-prandial oxidative stress or inflammation. Therefore, regular consumption of the supplemented milks may confer health benefits because of increased antioxidant potential or through mechanisms resulting from increased vitamin C or decreased uric acid concentrations.

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