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J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Oct;34(4):941-6. doi: 10.1002/jmri.22688. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Dynamic phantom with heart, lung, and blood motion for initial validation of MRI techniques.

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Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.



To develop an anthropomorphic phantom to simulate heart, lung, and blood motion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to image distortion and artifacts caused by motion. Imaging phantoms are used to test new sequences, but generally, these phantoms lack physiological motion. For the validation of new MR-based endovascular interventional and other techniques, we developed a dynamic motion phantom that is suitable for initial in vitro and more realistic validation studies that should occur before animal experiments.


An anthropomorphic phantom was constructed to model the thoracic cavity, including respiratory and cardiac motions, and moving blood. Several MRI methods were used to validate the phantom performance: anatomical scanning, rapid temporal imaging, digital subtraction angiography, and endovascular tracking. The quality and nature of the motion artifact in these images were compared with in vivo images.


The closed-loop motion phantom correctly represented key features in the thorax, was MR-compatible, and was able to reproduce similar motion artifacts and effects as seen in in vivo images. The phantom provided enough physiological realism that it was able to ensure a suitable challenge in an in vitro catheter tracking experiment.


A phantom was created and used for testing interventional catheter guiding. The images produced had similar qualities to those found in vivo. This phantom had a high degree of appropriate anthropomorphic and physiological qualities. Ethically, use of this phantom is highly appropriate when first testing new MRI techniques prior to conducting animal studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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