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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 2;108(31):E402-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100225108. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Spontaneous revisitation during visual exploration as a link among strategic behavior, learning, and the hippocampus.

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Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.


Effective exploratory behaviors involve continuous updating of sensory sampling to optimize the efficacy of information gathering. Despite some work on this issue in animals, little information exists regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms for this sort of behavioral optimization in humans. Here we examined a visual exploration phenomenon that occurred when human subjects studying an array of objects spontaneously looked "backward" in their scanning paths to view recently seen objects again. This "spontaneous revisitation" of recently viewed objects was associated with enhanced hippocampal activity and superior subsequent memory performance in healthy participants, but occurred only rarely in amnesic patients with severe damage to the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate the necessity of the hippocampus not just in the aspects of long-term memory with which it has been associated previously, but also in the short-term adaptive control of behavior. Functional neuroimaging showed hippocampal engagement occurring in conjunction with frontocerebellar circuits, thereby revealing some of the larger brain circuitry essential for the strategic deployment of information-seeking behaviors that optimize learning.

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