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J Oncol. 2011;2011:854584. doi: 10.1155/2011/854584. Epub 2011 May 29.

Paternal smoking and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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1
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

METHOD:

We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking.

RESULTS:

The summary odds ratio (OR) of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05-1.18, I(2) = 18%) during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08-1.46, I(2) = 53%) preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07-1.43, I(2) = 54%) during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96-1.60, I(2) = 64%) after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth.

CONCLUSION:

The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms.

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