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J Dent. 2011 Sep;39(9):629-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2011.07.001. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

The addition of nano-sized hydroxyapatite to a sports drink to inhibit dental erosion: in vitro study using bovine enamel.

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Department of Preventive Dentistry and Public Oral Health, Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



This study examined the dental erosion and demineralization potential of a sports drink containing nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) as an additive.


The experimental solutions were Powerade (PA) alone and PA with 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.25% nano-HA. The pH, titratable acidity, and calcium and phosphate content of each solution were analysed, and the degree of saturation with respect to the dental enamel (DS(En)) was obtained. Twelve sound bovine enamel specimens for each group were treated in accordance with the pH-cycling schedule which had 60min treatment with experimental solution per day for 7 days. The erosion potential was determined from the changes in surface micro hardness (SMH), the depths of erosion and demineralized layer using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the morphological changes to the tooth surface were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after pH-cycling.


pH and DS(En) increased with increasing nano-HA concentration in the drinks, whereas the titratable acidity decreased. There were significant differences in the SMH between the PA alone and >0.10% nano-HA groups (p<0.001). Although the PA alone group showed a pronounced erosion depth, CLSM showed no erosion depth in 0.25% nano-HA group. SEM showed an intact surface with increasing nano-HA concentration in the drinks. In conclusion, dental erosion was effectively prevented with increase of adding concentration of nano-HA, and a sports drink containing 0.25% nano-HA might prevent dental erosion.

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