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Adv Virus Res. 2011;80:1-24. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385987-7.00001-4.

Mechanistic intersections between picornavirus translation and RNA replication.

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1
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Abstract

Members of the Picornaviridae are positive-strand RNA viruses whose genomes contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in the 5' noncoding region (NCR). These viruses must utilize host cell factors for translation initiation and RNA replication in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Such cytoplasmic, positive-strand RNA viruses have a conflict between the processes of translation and negative-strand RNA synthesis, since they occur in opposing directions and utilize positive-strand viral RNA as a template. The most extensively studied picornavirus, poliovirus, will be the focus of this review. Critical RNA elements and factors involved in the virus replication cycle will be discussed, with an overview on how these steps in replication relate to the switch mechanism between IRES-dependent translation and synthesis of negative-strand RNA intermediates.

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