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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 29;52(9):6820-4. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-7811.

Relationship of aqueous outflow resistance to age and total volume perfused in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys.

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Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.



The effect of total volume perfused on outflow resistance (the reciprocal of outflow facility) and the effect of age on the rate of change in resistance as a function of total volume were determined in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys.


Outflow facility was measured under general anesthesia by two-level constant pressure perfusion in one eye of 22 rhesus and 17 cynomolgus monkeys (ranging in age, respectively, from 4 to 25 and from 3 to 12 years). Total volume perfused was calculated from data obtained during the perfusion.


Resistance decreased in both cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys as total volume perfused increased (-0.085 ± 0.021 and -0.022 ± 0.011 mm Hg/μL/min/μL(tot); P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Rate of change in resistance significantly increased in cynomolgus monkeys as total volume perfused increased (0.0018 ± 0.0.0007 mm Hg/μL/min/μL(tot), P = 0.033); however, this was not the case in rhesus monkeys. After accounting for total volume perfused, the rate of change in resistance significantly decreased with increasing age in rhesus monkeys (-0.0068 ± 0.0026 [mm Hg/μL/min]/μL(tot)/y, P = 0.017). There was no significant difference in rate of change in resistance with age, after accounting for total volume, in the cynomolgus monkeys.


The present study supports previous findings indicating that total washout is largely dependent on perfusion volume. However, in populations with old/elderly animals, such as our rhesus group, we found that age does play a significant role in rate of change in resistance, and may be an even more important factor to consider in the rate of resistance change than volume perfused in aged animals.

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