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Biophys Chem. 2011 Nov;159(1):172-87. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2011.06.007. Epub 2011 Jun 24.

Thermodynamic linkage between calmodulin domains binding calcium and contiguous sites in the C-terminal tail of Ca(V)1.2.

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Department of Biochemistry, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109, United States.


Calmodulin (CaM) binding to the intracellular C-terminal tail (CTT) of the cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) regulates Ca(2+) entry by recognizing sites that contribute to negative feedback mechanisms for channel closing. CaM associates with Ca(V)1.2 under low resting [Ca(2+)], but is poised to change conformation and position when intracellular [Ca(2+)] rises. CaM binding Ca(2+), and the domains of CaM binding the CTT are linked thermodynamic functions. To better understand regulation, we determined the energetics of CaM domains binding to peptides representing pre-IQ sites A(1588), and C(1614) and the IQ motif studied as overlapping peptides IQ(1644) and IQ'(1650) as well as their effect on calcium binding. (Ca(2+))(4)-CaM bound to all four peptides very favorably (K(d)≤2 nM). Linkage analysis showed that IQ(1644-1670) bound with a K(d)~1 pM. In the pre-IQ region, (Ca(2+))(2)-N-domain bound preferentially to A(1588), while (Ca(2+))(2)-C-domain preferred C(1614). When bound to C(1614), calcium binding in the N-domain affected the tertiary conformation of the C-domain. Based on the thermodynamics, we propose a structural mechanism for calcium-dependent conformational change in which the linker between CTT sites A and C buckles to form an A-C hairpin that is bridged by calcium-saturated CaM.

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