Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Oct;165(4):603-11. doi: 10.1530/EJE-11-0545. Epub 2011 Jul 13.

Low 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with total adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension in Caucasian children and adolescents.

Author information

Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 324 00161 Rome, Italy.



Evidence of the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular risk factors in the young is limited. We therefore assessed the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D(3)) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and early atherosclerotic changes in 452 (304 overweight/obese and 148 healthy, normal weight) Caucasian children.


We determined serum 25(OH)D(3) concentrations in relation to MetS, its components (central obesity, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose impairment, and/or insulin resistance (IR)), and impairment of flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) - two markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.


Higher 25(OH)D(3) was significantly associated with a reduced presence of MetS. Obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, IR, and MetS were all associated with increased odds of having low 25(OH)D(3) levels, after adjustment for age, sex, and Tanner stage. After additional adjustment for SDS-body mass index, elevated blood pressure (BP) and MetS remained significantly associated with low vitamin D status. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for those in the lowest (<17 ng/ml) compared with the highest tertile (>27 ng/ml) of 25(OH)D(3) for hypertension was 1.72 (1.02-2.92), and for MetS, it was 2.30 (1.20-4.40). A similar pattern of association between 25(OH)D(3), high BP, and MetS was observed when models were adjusted for waist circumference. No correlation was found between 25(OH)D(3) concentrations and either FMD or cIMT.


Low 25(OH)D(3) levels in Caucasian children are inversely related to total adiposity, MetS, and hypertension.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Sheridan PubFactory
Loading ...
Support Center