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Opt Express. 2011 Jul 4;19 Suppl 4:A914-29. doi: 10.1364/OE.19.00A914.

Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode.

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Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan.


The experimental demonstrations of light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication with surface plasmon (SP) coupling with the radiating dipoles in its quantum wells are first reviewed. The SP coupling with a radiating dipole can create an alternative emission channel through SP radiation for enhancing the effective internal quantum efficiency when the intrinsic non-radiative recombination rate is high, reducing the external quantum efficiency droop effect at high current injection levels, and producing partially polarized LED output by inducing polarization-sensitive SP for coupling. Then, we report the theoretical and numerical study results of SP-dipole coupling based on a simple coupling model between a radiating dipole and the SP induced on a nearby Ag nanoparticle (NP). To include the dipole strength variation effect caused by the field distribution built in the coupling system (the feedback effect), the radiating dipole is represented by a saturable two-level system. The spectral and dipole-NP distance dependencies of dipole strength variation and total radiated power enhancement of the coupling system are demonstrated and interpreted. The results show that the dipole-SP coupling can enhance the total radiated power. The enhancement is particularly effective when the feedback effect is included and hence the dipole strength is increased.

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