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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Sep;55(9):4320-5. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00166-11. Epub 2011 Jul 11.

Pharmacokinetics and virological efficacy after switch to once-daily lopinavir-ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected children.

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EA 3620 Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.


Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) is a protease inhibitor that is used twice daily (BID) in the treatment of HIV infection in children. In the context of a single-center observational study, a switch to a once-a-day (QD) LPV/r regimen was proposed for considerations of convenience and to support adherence. The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics, viral loads, percentages of CD4(+) T cells, and lipid profiles after switching from a twice-daily to a once-daily regimen of LPV/r in experienced children. For this purpose, LPV concentrations, viral loads, CD4(+) T cells, and biochemistry data were measured in routine therapeutic drug monitoring procedures in 45 children and adolescents. Thirty-six children were switched to the QD regimen. Nine children on the BID or QD regimen were added for pharmacokinetic-study purposes only. The QD trough concentrations (C(trough)) of lopinavir in plasma were significantly lower than those observed with the BID regimen (P < 0.0001), but the 24-h exposure levels were not significantly lower with the QD than with the BID regimen (P = 0.09). Among 34 evaluable patients who switched from the BID to the QD regimen, the virological efficacy of LPV/r appeared to differ (P < 0.001), with 74% and 57% of viral loads, respectively, being <50 copies/ml (mean follow-up times, 33 and 20 months). Among 22 patients with stable virological control before the switch, 12 experienced either failure or blip (one observation of detectable viral load between two observations of undetectable viral load) after the switch. The change from the BID to the QD regimen did not result in significant differences in CD4(+) T cell percentages or total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or triglyceride levels. The switch from the BID to the QD LPV/r regimen led to equivalent exposure and lower C(trough) values and resulted in lower levels of virological control in these antiretroviral-experienced children.

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